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Diesel fuel and exhaust emissions. Environmental Health Criteria.

1996

CIENA
2130

PART A: DIESEL FUEL. SUMMARY. Identity, physical and chemical properties, and analytical methods. Sources of human and environmental exposure. Environmental transport, distribution and transformation. Environmental levels and human exposure. Effects on laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Effects on humans. Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and the field. Evaluation of human health risks. Evaluation of effects on the environment. IDENTITY, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, AND ANALITICAL METHODS. Identity. Fuel components. Alkanes. alkenes. Aromatic compounds. Sulfur. Fuel additives. Cetane number improvers. Smoke suppressors. Flow improvers. Cloud-point depressors. Wax anti-settling additives. Other additives. Quality aspects of diesel fuels. Ignition performance and cetane number. Density. Sulfur content. Viscosity. Cold-flow properties. Physical and chemical properties. Analytical methods. Conversion factors. SOURCES OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. Natural occurrence. Anthropogenic sources. Production and use. Production process. Use. Production and consumption levels. Emissions during production and use. Air. Water. Soil. Accidental releases to the environment. ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, AND TRANSFORMATION. Transport and distribution between media. Evaporation from and dissolution in the aqueous phase. Transport in and adsorption onto soil and sediment. Soil. Sediment. Transformation and removal. Photooxidation. Biodegradation. Microbial degradation. Phytoplankton and marine algae. Invertebrates and vertebrates. Bioaccumulation. Tainting. Entry into the food chain. Ultimate fate after use. Use in motor vehicles. Spills. Disposal. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE. Environmental levels. Exposure of the general population. Occupational exposure during manufacture, formulation or use. KINETICS AND METABOLISM IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS. EFFECTS ON LABORATORY MAMMALS AND IN VITRO TEST SYSTEMS. Single exposure. Short-term exposure. Subacute exposure. Dermal exposure. Inhalation. Subchronic exposure. Dermal exposure. Inhalation. Long-term exposure. Dermal exposure. Inhalation. Dermal and ocular irritation; dermal sensitization. Dermal irritation. Ocular irritation. Sensitization. Reproductive toxicity, embryotoxicity, and teratogenicity. Mutagenicity and related end-points. In vitro. Carcinogenicity. Dermal exposure. Inhalation. EFFECTS ON HUMANS. Exposure of the general population. Occupational exposure. EFFECTS ON OTHER ORGANISMS IN THE LABORATORY AND THE FIELD. Laboratory experiments. Microorganisms. Water. Soil. Aquatic organisms. Plants (phytoplankton). Invertebrates. Terrestrial organisms. Plants. Invertebrates. Vertebrates. Field observations. Microorganisms. Water. Soil. Aquatic organisms. Terrestrial organisms. Plants. Invertebrates. Vertebrates. EVALUATION OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS AND EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT. Evaluation of human health risks. Exposure of the general population. Occupational exposure. Non-neoplastic effects. Neoplastic effects. Evaluation of effects on the environment. RECOMMENDATIONS. Recommendations for the protection of human health. Recommendation for the protection of the environment. recommendation for further research. PREVIOUS EVALUATIONS BY INTERNATIONAL BODIES. PART B: DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS. SUMMARY. Identity, physical and chemical properties, and analytical methods. Sources of human and environmental exposure. Environmental transport, distribution, and transformation. Environmental levels and human exposure. Kinetics and metabolism in laboratory animals and humans. Deposition. Retention and clearance of particles. Retention and clearance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto diesel soot. Metabolism. Effects on laboratory mammals and in vitro test systems. Effects on humans. Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and the field. Evaluation of human health risks. Non-neoplastic effects. Neoplastic effects. Evaluation of effects on the environment. IDENTITY AND ANALYTICAL METHODS. Identity. Chemical composition of diesel exhaust gases. Type and composition of emitted particulate matter. Analytical methods. Sampling. Sampling from undiluted exhaust gas (raw gas sampling). Sampling from diluted exhaust (dilution tube sampling). Extraction from particles. Clean-up and fractionation. Chemical analysis. Conversion factors. SOURCES OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. Anthropogenic sources. Diesel exhaust emissions. Emission of chemical constituents with the gaseous portion of diesel exhaust. Emission of particulate matter and adsorbed components in diesel exhaust gases. Parameters that influence diesel exhaust emissions. Engine conditions. Fuel specification. Malfunction. Total emissions by diesel engines. Control of emissions. Particle traps. Catalytic converters. Regulatory approaches. ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, AND TRANSFORMATION. Transport and distribution between media. Transformation and removal. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE. Exposure of the general population. Occupational exposure. Truck drivers and mechanics. Bus garage and other bus workers. Fork-lift truck operators. Railroad workers. Mine workers. Fire-fighters. Biomonitoring. Urinary mutagenicity. Other analyses. KINETICS AND METABOLISM IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS. Deposition. Retention and clearance of particles. Retention and clearance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto diesel soot. Metabolism. EFFECTS ON LABORATORY MAMMALS AND IN VITRO TEST SYSTEMS. Single exposure. Short-term exposure. Long-term exposure and studies of carcinogenicity. Non-neoplastic effects. Carcinogenicity. Inhalation. Other routes of exposure. Dermal and ocular irritation, dermal sensitization. Reproductive toxicity, embryotoxicity, and teratogenocity. Reproductive toxicity. Embryotoxicity. Teratogenocity. Mutagenicity and related end-points. In vitro. DNA adduct formation. Special studies. Immunotoxicity. Behavioural effects. Factors that modify toxicity; toxicity of metabolites. Mechanisms of toxicity; mode of action. Carcinogenic effects. DNA-reactive mechanisms. Cytotoxicity with regenerative cell proliferation. Effects of particles. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Noncarcinogenic effects....

Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía. Secretaría de Planificación del Sub-Sector Energía - Centro de Información de Energía y Ambiente, CIENA

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