Proceedings of the 1986 International Congress on Renewable Energy Sources. Direct conversion of salinity gradients into electric power. International Congress on Renewable Energy Sources [18-23 Mayo 1986, Madrid].
The feasibility of a direct conversion of salinity gradients into electric power was demonstrated, and losses of energy due to electrode reactions were eliminated. Devices, that combined features of an electrodialytic pile with those of electrochemical half cells (REE systems), were designed. Electrodes were periodically restored to their initial condition by simple reversal of the flow pattern. The internal electric resistivity of the cells and their hydraulic resistance was minimized by introducing the triple sandwich frame concept and by modifying chemically the surface of the spacers. Energy extracted from salinity gradients at power density of 1W/m2 of the membrane yielded up to 0.6 kw of power per one L/sec of river or brackish water. Larger REE units way be expected to operate at power density of up to 2 KW per 1000 m2 on the combined area of cation and anion transfer membranes. Coupling of a RO desalination plant with a REE unit may provide the entire energy required for desalination, if the reject stream of the RO plant is enriched by additional salt.. INTRODUCTION. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION. REE SYSTEM. CALCULATIONS. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. REFERENCES.
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