Proceedings of the 1986 International Congress on Renewable Energy Sources. Solar energy thermal applications. International Congress on Renewable Energy Sources [18-23 Mayo 1986, Madrid].
Solar radiation reaching the surface of the earth is intermittent due to atmospheric conditions and the earth's rotation. This intermittence and variability are guiding factors in solar energy thermal applications. Direct applications of solar thermal energy for industrial process heat generation, for water heating using shallow ponds, for electricity generation using salt gradient ponds, for fruit and grain drying using flat-plate air collectors and for water pumping for agricultural uses using flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. The design, construction and operation of shallow and salt-gradient ponds are presented. The direct use of solar thermal energy to produce industrial process heat is discussed. The indirect use of solar thermal energy in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is presented on the base of two 100kWe each systems, an experimental one and a demonstration one. Finnally, some economic aspects of various solar thermal applications are discussed. References are provide for further reading on the solar thermal applications treated in the paper. ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION. FLAT-PLATE COLLECTORS BASED SYSTEMS. Water heating by shallow solar ponds. Electricity generation by salt-gradient ponds. Electricity generation by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Agricultural drying. Pumping irrigation water. CONCENTRATING COLLECTORS SYSTEMS. Industrial process steam generation. Pumping irrigation water. CONCLUSIONS. REFERENCES.
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