Technical progress in GDP production and CO2 emissions in Brazil: 1970−2012
In this study, technical progress is analysed in terms of its influence on the mix of inputs of labour, capital and energy that go into the production of gross domestic product (GDP) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The results of this analysis show that the Brazilian economy exhibited a Marx-biased pattern of technical progress during the period under study. Within the framework of this overall pattern, however, three different phases of technical progress in Brazil can be identified. Between 1970 and 1980, a Marx-biased pattern was observed, followed by the stagnation of technical progress between 1980 and 2003. In the years from 2003 to 2012, the pattern of technical change was Harrod-neutral.